Background: Survival after myeloablative therapy followed by hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is limited by substantial treatment-related toxicities. Acute renal failure (ARF) develops in 25% to 50% of patients after HCT.
Methods: One hundred forty-seven patients were followed prospectively from time of transplant. ARF was defined as a doubling of baseline serum creatinine at any time during the first 100 days post-transplant. We conducted a nested case-control study to identify precipitants of ARF. For each person who developed ARF, 2 controls were selected at random from patients who had not developed ARF as of that time. An exposure period was defined for each case as the 2 weeks prior to the day on which the matched case met the criteria for ARF. The risk of ARF in relation to demographic and anthropometric characteristics, and to types of treatment and comorbidity, was examined using univariable and multivariable conditional logistic regression models. Odds ratios for the associations with ARF were estimated, taking into account the matching.
Results: Fifty-three patients (36%) developed ARF at a median of 33 days after transplant (range 1 to 97). Elevated risks were observed in patients who received liposomal amphotericin (OR 6.58; 95%CI 1.45-29.95) and conventional (OR 3.60; 95%CI 0.79-16.55), and in those patients with sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) (previously termed veno-occlusive disease) (OR 9.37; 95%CI 2.29-38.38). For every 0.1 mg/dL increase in baseline serum Cr, the risk of ARF decreased by 30%. Neither total body irradiation (TBI) dose, levels of metabolites of cyclophosphamide, sepsis, acute graft versus host disease (GVHD), nor cyclosporine (CSA) levels was associated with an increased risk of ARF.
Conclusion: The cumulative incidence of ARF after HCT remains high. Amphotericin use during the 2-week exposure period and presence of hepatic sinuosoidal injury increased the risk of ARF within the first 100 days after HCT. Higher levels of serum creatinine at baseline were associated with a lower risk of ARF.