Candidate-based proteomics in the search for biomarkers of cardiovascular disease

J Physiol. 2005 Feb 15;563(Pt 1):23-60. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2004.080473. Epub 2004 Dec 20.


The key concept of proteomics (looking at many proteins at once) opens new avenues in the search for clinically useful biomarkers of disease, treatment response and ageing. As the number of proteins that can be detected in plasma or serum (the primary clinical diagnostic samples) increases towards 1000, a paradoxical decline has occurred in the number of new protein markers approved for diagnostic use in clinical laboratories. This review explores the limitations of current proteomics protein discovery platforms, and proposes an alternative approach, applicable to a range of biological/physiological problems, in which quantitative mass spectrometric methods developed for analytical chemistry are employed to measure limited sets of candidate markers in large sets of clinical samples. A set of 177 candidate biomarker proteins with reported associations to cardiovascular disease and stroke are presented as a starting point for such a 'directed proteomics' approach.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / metabolism*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Profiling / methods*
  • Humans
  • Myocardium / metabolism*
  • Proteomics / methods*


  • Biomarkers