The alkylresorcinol (AR) content of Swedish wheat grain samples, as well as of cereal ingredients and cereal foods containing wheat and rye, was determined. The average total AR content in Swedish wheat was 412 microg/g (ranging between 227 and 639 microg/g), which is lower than that in Swedish rye analyzed in a previous study. The relative composition of AR homologues was consistent for wheat samples and differed markedly from that of rye. Notably, the ratio of the homologues C17:0/C21:0 was approximately 0.1 in wheat and approximately 1.0 in rye, indicating that it can be used to distinguish between those two cereals. The AR content in cereal foods commonly consumed in Sweden varied widely, from nondetectable levels in white wheat flour and products not containing the outer parts of wheat and/or rye to >900 microg/g in some whole grain rye products. AR content in cereal foods was calculated from their recipes using average AR values for the cereal ingredients determined in this study. As there was a good correlation between calculated and analyzed AR levels in cereal foods (R2 = 0.91), it is possible to estimate the proportion of whole grain wheat and/or rye in a given cereal product on the basis of AR content and C17:0/C21:0 ratio. ARs appear to be good markers of whole grain wheat and rye in foods, and their analysis may be an objective way to identify foods rich in whole grain wheat and/or rye or brans thereof.