Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common genetic disease within the Caucasian population and leads to premature respiratory failure. Approximately 60,000 individuals are currently living with CF in North America and Europe, 40% of whom are adults. The life span of these patients has increased from approximately 2 to 32 yr of age over the last three decades. Bone disease has emerged as a common complication in long-term survivors of CF. Some studies have observed that 50-75% of adults have low bone density and increased rates of fractures. Prevention and treatment of CF-related bone disease must address the myriad risk factors (decreased absorption of fat-soluble vitamins due to pancreatic insufficiency, altered sex hormone production, chronic lung infection with increased levels of bone-active cytokines, physical inactivity, and glucocorticoid therapy) for poor bone health. This review is a condensed and updated summary of the Guide to Bone Health and Disease in Cystic Fibrosis: A Consensus Conference, a statement that evolved from a meeting convened by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation in May 2002 to address the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of bone disease in CF. The goal of this conference was to develop practice guidelines for optimizing bone health in patients with CF.