Reversible kallmann syndrome, delayed puberty, and isolated anosmia occurring in a single family with a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Mar;90(3):1317-22. doi: 10.1210/jc.2004-1361. Epub 2004 Dec 21.


Kallmann syndrome (KS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Recently, loss-of-function mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene have been shown to cause autosomal dominant KS. To date, the detailed reproductive phenotype of KS associated with mutations in the FGFR1 has yet to be described. We report a kindred comprising a male proband with KS and spontaneous reversibility, whose mother had delayed puberty and whose maternal grandfather isolated anosmia. The proband presented at age 18 yr with KS and was subsequently treated with testosterone (T) therapy. Upon discontinuation of T therapy, he recovered from his hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, as evidenced by a normal LH secretion pattern, sustained normal serum T levels, and active spermatogenesis. The three members of this single family harbor the same FGFR1 mutation (Arg(622)X) in the tyrosine kinase domain. This report demonstrates 1) the first genetic cause of the rare variant of reversible KS, 2) the reversal of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in a proband carrying an FGFR1 mutation suggests a role of FGFR1 beyond embryonic GnRH neuron migration, and 3) a loss of function mutation in the FGFR1 gene causing delayed puberty.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Androgens / administration & dosage
  • Family Health
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology
  • Kallmann Syndrome / drug therapy
  • Kallmann Syndrome / genetics*
  • Male
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Olfaction Disorders / genetics*
  • Pedigree
  • Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiology
  • Puberty, Delayed / drug therapy
  • Puberty, Delayed / genetics*
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics*
  • Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1
  • Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor / genetics*
  • Testosterone / administration & dosage


  • Androgens
  • Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • Testosterone
  • FGFR1 protein, human
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1