The renal handling of inorganic phosphate (Pi) is controlled not only by PTH, but also by hitherto undetermined mechanisms dependent on phosphate intake. Recently, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 was identified as a novel phosphaturic factor in tumor-induced osteomalacia and autosomal-dominant hypophosphatemic rickets. We hypothesized that phosphate intake could influence FGF-23 concomitantly to the changes in renal Pi handling. Twenty-nine healthy males were subjected to a 5-d low-phosphate diet and a phosphate binder, followed by a high-phosphate diet including supplements. Concomitant modifications in calcium intake allowed minimizing PTH changes in response to dietary phosphate. Serum FGF-23 levels significantly decreased on the low-phosphate diet, then increased with the oral phosphate load. Changes in FGF-23 were positively correlated with changes in 24-h urinary Pi excretion and negatively correlated with changes in the maximal tubular reabsorption of Pi and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (calcitriol), whereas PTH was not. In multivariate analysis, changes in FGF-23 remained the most significantly correlated to changes in 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and maximal tubular reabsorption of Pi. Moreover, FGF-23 was positively correlated to serum osteocalcin, a marker of osteoblastic activity. In summary, FGF-23 was inversely related to renal Pi transport and serum calcitriol levels in healthy young men. These data suggest that FGF-23 may be implicated in the physiological regulation of Pi homeostasis in response to dietary phosphate changes, independent of PTH.