A self-expanding vascular prosthesis was used to treat 20 venous stenoses or occlusions in 13 patients. The lesions were caused by tumor (n = 5), postoperative fibrous scars (n = 2), and chronic hemodialysis fistulas (n = 13). Follow-up ranged between 6 weeks and 53 months (mean follow-up, 14.9 months). Acute occlusion occurred in two stents, one within a tumor stenosis and one in a dialysis shunt after 3 days and 2 days, respectively. Balloon angioplasty, thrombolysis, and aspiration in the first case and balloon angioplasty and thrombolysis in the second case successfully restored patency. Definite occlusion occurred in these two patients after 8 weeks and 5 months, respectively. Ten secondary interventions were performed in three patients with 10 restenoses who had stenotic arm veins in chronic hemodialysis at presentation. Five of seven patients who received treatment for stenoses associated with hemodialysis underwent successful kidney transplantation 5-27 months after placement of vascular stents. Both patients who received treatment for benign strictures had patent stents at follow-up examinations performed at 45 and 53 months, respectively. Four of five stents placed for malignant stenoses were patent at venography (n = 3) or autopsy (n = 1).