Background: Unique characteristics, impact of therapy with antifungal agents, and outcome of infections with Scedosporium species were assessed in transplant recipients.
Methods: The patients comprised a total of 80 transplant recipients with Scedosporium infections, including 13 patients from our institutions (University of Pittsburgh Medical Center [Pittsburgh, PA], University of Maryland [Baltimore], Duke University Medical Center [Durham, NC], Emory University [Atlanta, GA], and Hospital Gregorio Maranon [Madrid, Spain]) and 67 reported in the literature. The transplant recipients were compared with 190 non-transplant recipients with scedosporiosis who were described in the literature.
Results: Overall, 69% of the infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients and 53% of the infections in organ transplant recipients were disseminated. HSCT recipients, compared with organ transplant recipients, were more likely to have infections caused by Scedosporium prolificans (P=.045), to have an earlier onset of infection (P=.007), to be neutropenic (P<.0001), and to have fungemia (P=.04). Time elapsed from transplantation to Scedosporium infection in transplant recipients has increased in recent years (P=.002). The mortality rate among transplant recipients with scedosporiosis was 58%. In a logistic regression model using amphotericin B as comparison treatment, voriconazole was associated with a trend towards better survival (odds ratio [OR], 10.40; P=.08). Presence of disseminated infection (OR, 0.20; P=.03) predicted lower survival, and receipt of adjunctive surgery as treatment (OR, 5.52; P=.02) independently predicted a better survival in this model.
Conclusions: Scedosporium infections in transplant recipients were associated with a high rate of dissemination and a poor outcome overall. The use of newer triazole agents warrants consideration as a therapeutic modality for these infections.