Infections due to Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium prolificans in transplant recipients: clinical characteristics and impact of antifungal agent therapy on outcome

Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Jan 1;40(1):89-99. doi: 10.1086/426445. Epub 2004 Dec 8.


Background: Unique characteristics, impact of therapy with antifungal agents, and outcome of infections with Scedosporium species were assessed in transplant recipients.

Methods: The patients comprised a total of 80 transplant recipients with Scedosporium infections, including 13 patients from our institutions (University of Pittsburgh Medical Center [Pittsburgh, PA], University of Maryland [Baltimore], Duke University Medical Center [Durham, NC], Emory University [Atlanta, GA], and Hospital Gregorio Maranon [Madrid, Spain]) and 67 reported in the literature. The transplant recipients were compared with 190 non-transplant recipients with scedosporiosis who were described in the literature.

Results: Overall, 69% of the infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients and 53% of the infections in organ transplant recipients were disseminated. HSCT recipients, compared with organ transplant recipients, were more likely to have infections caused by Scedosporium prolificans (P=.045), to have an earlier onset of infection (P=.007), to be neutropenic (P<.0001), and to have fungemia (P=.04). Time elapsed from transplantation to Scedosporium infection in transplant recipients has increased in recent years (P=.002). The mortality rate among transplant recipients with scedosporiosis was 58%. In a logistic regression model using amphotericin B as comparison treatment, voriconazole was associated with a trend towards better survival (odds ratio [OR], 10.40; P=.08). Presence of disseminated infection (OR, 0.20; P=.03) predicted lower survival, and receipt of adjunctive surgery as treatment (OR, 5.52; P=.02) independently predicted a better survival in this model.

Conclusions: Scedosporium infections in transplant recipients were associated with a high rate of dissemination and a poor outcome overall. The use of newer triazole agents warrants consideration as a therapeutic modality for these infections.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Amphotericin B / therapeutic use
  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Itraconazole / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mycetoma / diagnosis*
  • Mycetoma / drug therapy
  • Mycetoma / mortality
  • Pyrimidines / therapeutic use
  • Scedosporium / classification
  • Scedosporium / isolation & purification*
  • Transplantation*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Triazoles / therapeutic use
  • Voriconazole


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Pyrimidines
  • Triazoles
  • Itraconazole
  • Amphotericin B
  • Voriconazole