Prefrontal cortical dysfunction in abstinent cocaine abusers

J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. Fall 2004;16(4):456-64. doi: 10.1176/jnp.16.4.456.

Abstract

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and lateral prefrontal (LPFC) cortex are brain regions important to executive cognitive functions (ECF). We determined ACC and LPFC function in 23-day abstinent cocaine abusers using positron emission tomography (PET H(2)(15)O) during performance of a modified version of the Stroop Task. Cocaine abusers showed less activation than non-drug-using comparison subjects in the left ACC and the right LPFC and greater activation in the right ACC. Average amount of cocaine used per week was negatively correlated with activity in the rostral ACC and right LPFC. Disruption of ECF in substance abusers could interfere with attempts to stop drug use and undermine treatment. Since impairment in ECF may be a common feature of various neuropsychiatric disorders, these findings have applicability beyond the neurobiology of addiction.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation
  • Cocaine-Related Disorders / diagnostic imaging
  • Cocaine-Related Disorders / physiopathology*
  • Color Perception / physiology
  • Conflict, Psychological
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Female
  • Functional Laterality / physiology
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Intelligence Tests
  • Male
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Positron-Emission Tomography
  • Prefrontal Cortex / diagnostic imaging
  • Prefrontal Cortex / physiopathology*
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Psychomotor Performance
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / diagnostic imaging
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / physiopathology*