An alarmingly high prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in Asian type 2 diabetic patients: the MicroAlbuminuria Prevalence (MAP) Study

Diabetologia. 2005 Jan;48(1):17-26. doi: 10.1007/s00125-004-1599-9. Epub 2004 Dec 23.


Aim/hypothesis: Microalbuminuria represents the earliest clinical evidence of diabetic nephropathy and is a marker of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Its early detection allows the implementation of individualised and aggressive intervention programmes to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. There is limited information on the prevalence of microalbuminuria among hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients in Asia.

Methods: This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed to assess the prevalence of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria among consecutively screened hypertensive type 2 diabetic adult patients in 103 centres in 10 Asian countries or regions. Predictive factors for microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were characterised using a stepwise logistic regression model.

Results: A total of 6,801 patients were enrolled and 5,549 patients constituted the per-protocol population (patients with bacteriuria and haematuria were excluded). The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 39.8% (39.2-40.5; 95% CI) and the prevalence of macroalbuminuria was 18.8% (18.2-19.3; 95% CI). Only 11.6% of the patients had systolic and diastolic blood pressure below the 130/80 mm Hg target. In the multivariate analyses, the predictive factors for the presence of microalbuminuria were age, BMI, systolic blood pressure and ethnic origin. The highlighted predictive factors for the presence of macroalbuminuria were age, sex, ethnic origin, BMI, duration of diabetes, presence of diabetic complications, intake of diuretics, intake of calcium channel blockers, diastolic and systolic blood pressure.

Conclusions/interpretation: The high prevalence (58.6%) of micro or macroalbuminuria observed in these patients is alarming and indicates an impending pandemic of diabetic cardiovascular and renal diseases in Asia with its potential economic consequences.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Albuminuria / epidemiology*
  • Asia / epidemiology
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data*
  • Blood Pressure
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Prevalence