CYP isoforms involved in the metabolism of clarithromycin in vitro: comparison between the identification from disappearance rate and that from formation rate of metabolites

Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2003;18(2):104-13. doi: 10.2133/dmpk.18.104.


To clarify whether CYP2C19 is involved in the overall metabolism of clarithromycin (CAM) or not, in vitro studies using human liver microsomes and recombinant CYPs were performed by an approach based on the disappearance rate of parent compound from the incubation mixture. In addition, the results of disappearance rate were compared with those obtained from the formation rates of the major metabolites of CAM, 14-(R)-hydroxy-CAM and N-demethyl-CAM. The intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) values determined from the disappearance of CAM in nine different human liver microsomes were highly correlated with the testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation activity (r=0.957, p<0.001). The CL(int) of CAM was markedly reduced by selective inhibitors of CYP3A4 (ketoconazole and troleandomycin) and by polyclonal antibodies raised against CYP3A4/5 in human liver microsomes. Among the 11 isoforms of recombinant human CYP, only CYP3A4 revealed the metabolic activity for the disappearance of CAM. These results were fairly consistent with those obtained from the conventional approach based on the formation of major metabolites of CAM. Comparison of the kinetic parameters estimated from the disappearance rate of CAM and the formation rates of 14-(R)-hydroxy-CAM and N-demethyl-CAM indicates that N-demethylation and 14-(R)-hydroxylation account for 65% of CL(int) derived from the disappearance of CAM in human liver microsomes. The findings suggest that CYP3A4 plays a predominant role in the overall metabolic clearance of CAM as well as in the formation of 14-(R)-hydroxy-CAM and N-demethyl-CAM. CYP2C19 does not appear to be involved in the overall metabolism of CAM at least in human liver microsomes. A combination of the disappearance rate of a parent compound and the formation rate of metabolites appears to be a useful approach for estimating the percentage contribution of the formation of metabolites to the overall metabolic clearance of a parent compound in vitro.