Prulifloxacin is a prodrug-type new quinolone. The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism of biliary excretion and brain distribution of its active metabolite, UFX. UFX was efficiently excreted into the bile in rats, with its concentration in the bile being 30-60 times higher than that in plasma. The in vivo disposition study revealed that multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) was involved in the biliary excretion of glucuronide metabolite, but not of the unchanged UFX. A transport study using a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpressing cell line, LLC-GA5-COL150, showed that UFX was a substrate of P-gp. Nevertheless, the biliary clearance (CLbile) of UFX in P-gp-gene-deficient mice was not different from that in the normal mice, although the concentration in the liver was slightly higher than that in the normal mice. These observations suggest that multiple transport systems are involved in the biliary excretion of UFX, with minor contribution of P-gp. The distribution of UFX in the rat brain was quite low, and its tissue to plasma concentration ratio (Kp) in the brain was much less than the unity and was increased by cyclosporin A. The Kp in the brain of mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice was higher than that in the normal mice, suggesting that efflux by P-gp played a major role in the limited brain distribution of UFX.