Aims/hypothesis: We evaluated the impact of sex and type 2 diabetes heredity on the prevalence and pathogenesis of early abnormalities of glucose homeostasis in subjects participating in the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Programme.
Methods: A sample of 3,128 men and 4,821 women, of whom approximately half had a family history of type 2 diabetes (FHD) was categorised according to an OGTT: NGT, IFG, IGT, combined glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. The homeostasis model assessment was used to determine insulin sensitivity and beta cell function.
Results: Prevalence of early abnormalities of glucose metabolism was two to three times higher in subjects with FHD and two to three times higher in men compared to women. Both maternal and paternal heredity of type 2 diabetes were associated with an increased risk of having early abnormalities of glucose metabolism. However, in women with type 2 diabetes heredity on the father's side seems to have less impact on an increased risk of having type 2 diabetes. Both waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were increased in subjects with abnormalities of glucose homeostasis, whereas insulin sensitivity and beta cell function were decreased. Subjects with IFG had more pronounced impairment of beta cell function and insulin sensitivity than subjects with IGT.
Conclusion/interpretation: An FHD and male sex increased the prevalence of abnormalities of glucose homeostasis. Subjects with IFG had more pronounced defects of insulin secretion and action than subjects with IGT.