Purpose: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is known to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome, which has been associated with a wide array of cardiovascular pathologies. This report examined the clinical outcome of patients infected with HIV who underwent abdominal aortic reconstruction for aneurysm or occlusive disease.
Methods: Hospital and clinic records of all patients with HIV infection who underwent an abdominal aortic operation were reviewed during an 11-year period. Relevant risk factors and clinical variables were assessed for surgical outcome.
Results: Forty-eight HIV patients (mean age 54 +/- 13 years) were identified who underwent abdominal aortic bypass grafting during the study period. Indications for aortic operation included aneurysm (n = 20) and aortoiliac occlusive disease (n = 28). All patients underwent successful aortic reconstructions without intraoperative mortality. Postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality occurred in 16 patients (33%) and 7 patients (15%), respectively. The mean follow-up period was 41 months. Life-table survival rates in aneurysm and occlusive patients at 60 months were 43.2% +/- 5.3% and 46.3% +/- 7.4% (not significant), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that low CD4 lymphocyte counts (< 200/microL, P <0.05) and hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL, P <0.05) were risk factors for postoperative complications.
Conclusion: Perioperative morbidity and mortality rates are high in HIV patients undergoing an abdominal aortic operation. Low CD4 lymphocyte counts and hypoalbuminemia are associated with poor clinical outcomes in HIV patients undergoing abdominal aortic reconstruction.