Marked prolongation of porcine renal xenograft survival in baboons through the use of alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout donors and the cotransplantation of vascularized thymic tissue

Nat Med. 2005 Jan;11(1):32-4. doi: 10.1038/nm1172. Epub 2004 Dec 26.


The use of animal organs could potentially alleviate the critical worldwide shortage of donor organs for clinical transplantation. Because of the strong immune response to xenografts, success will probably depend upon new strategies of immune suppression and induction of tolerance. Here we report our initial results using alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GalT-KO) donors and a tolerance induction approach. We have achieved life-supporting pig-to-baboon renal xenograft survivals of up to 83 d with normal creatinine levels.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Genetically Modified
  • Creatinine / metabolism
  • Disaccharides / immunology
  • Disaccharides / metabolism
  • Galactosyltransferases / genetics*
  • Galactosyltransferases / metabolism
  • Kidney Transplantation*
  • Papio
  • Swine
  • Thymus Gland / transplantation*
  • Time Factors
  • Transplantation, Heterologous* / immunology


  • Disaccharides
  • galactosyl-(1-3)galactose
  • Creatinine
  • Galactosyltransferases