Orexins are neuropeptides that have a range of physiological effects including the regulation of feeding behavior and the sleep-wakefulness cycle. Recently, we reported that level of orexin A in spinal fluid was decreased in the patients of some neurodegenerative diseases and it is considered that orexin A and the receptors might be related to central nervous system disorders. However, the expression and localization of orexin receptors is not elicited well. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the time-dependent changes and the cellular localization of orexin receptor focusing on orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) in the mouse brain after transient common carotid artery occlusion (tCCAO) model by using immunohistochemical techniques. OX1R immunoreactivity dramatically increased and peaked in the hippocampus and cortex 2 days after tCCAO, but remained unchanged in the hypothalamus. Using double-immunohistochemistry, the OX1R immunopositive cells at 2 days after tCCAO were co-localized not only with neuronal marker, NeuN-immunoreactivity but also with astroglial and oligodendroglial markers, GFAP- and CNPase-immunoreactivities, respectively. These results suggested that OX1R is induced other cells in addition to the neurons during stress such as ischemia and orexins and its receptor might play an important role for ischemic insult.