Safety and immunogenicity of adenovirus-vectored nasal and epicutaneous influenza vaccines in humans

Vaccine. 2005 Jan 11;23(8):1029-36. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.07.043.


The increasing number and density of the human population, the emergence of lethal influenza strains, and the potential use of designer influenza virus as a bioweapon, collectively highlight a critical need for more rapid production of influenza vaccines and less invasive means of delivery. We have developed a nonreplicative adenovirus-vectored influenza vaccine that can be produced without the prerequisite of growing influenza virus. This new class of vaccines can be administered as a nasal spray or skin patch by personnel without medical training. We report here that adenovirus-vectored nasal and epicutaneous influenza vaccines were well tolerated by human volunteers. The nasal vaccine was more potent than its epicutaneous counterpart under the adjuvant-free experimental condition. These results provide the foundation for further human testing of needleless vectored vaccines as promising alternatives to current vaccines.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adenoviridae / genetics*
  • Adenoviridae / immunology*
  • Administration, Cutaneous
  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Adult
  • Cell Line
  • Erythema / chemically induced
  • Genetic Vectors
  • Humans
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Influenza Vaccines / adverse effects*
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Male


  • Influenza Vaccines