Molecular dynamics and nuclear receptor function

Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jan-Feb;16(1):12-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2004.11.006.


The development of live cell and biochemical analysis methods has led to an increase in our understanding of the dynamic regulation of transcription. Live single cell studies using photobleaching techniques indicate that many proteins have a high nuclear mobility. Pioneering work using promoter array systems based on the lac operon or the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter enabled the study of chromatin structure, promoter occupancy and protein-chromatin interaction dynamics in relation to transcription. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-based assays allow an exhaustive analysis of the temporal recruitment of proteins to an endogenous promoter and provide evidence of cyclic protein-protein and protein-promoter interactions. Although reflecting different timescales, both ChIP and live cell studies indicate a highly dynamic control of transcription that until now has gone undetected and unappreciated.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Nucleus / genetics
  • Cell Nucleus / physiology
  • Chromatin / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation / physiology
  • Humans
  • Immunoprecipitation
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / physiology*


  • Chromatin
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear