Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a condition of significant hypoxia due to intrapulmonary shunting (IPS) in patients with advanced liver disease. Reversibility of HPS after liver transplantation (LT) has been suggested, but the results of LT for HPS remain poorly defined. We studied 78 patients with decompensated liver disease who underwent LT after a preoperative evaluation including contrast echocardiography. We compared the baseline characteristics and outcomes after LT in patients with HPS (n = 13) with those of patients without HPS (n = 65, controls). Before LT, prolongation of prothrombin time was more severe and an advanced Child-Pugh class were more frequent among HPS, patients compared with controls (INR 2.5 +/- 0.8 vs 1.9 +/- 0.7, P = .01; Child-Pugh class A:B:C = 0%:31%:69% vs 14%:65%:21%, P < .01). After LT, no significant differences were observed between the two groups in: clinical outcomes, duration of endotracheal intubation (4.5 +/- 7.7 vs 4.4 +/- 15.0 days), duration of intensive care unit stay (12.0 +/- 8.7 vs 14.4 +/- 19.4 days), duration of total hospital stay (40.0 +/- 33.5 vs 39.8 +/- 23.0), rate of pulmonary complications (7.7% vs 9.2%), or 3-month survival rates (92.3% vs 86.1%). These findings suggest that the presence of HPS does not significantly affect LT outcomes in patients with decompensated liver disease.