Radiologic study of marginal bone loss around 108 dental implants and its relationship to smoking, implant location, and morphology

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Nov-Dec 2004;19(6):861-7.


Purpose: To investigate peri-implant bone resorption around 108 ITI dental implants 1 year after prosthetic loading using extraoral panoramic, conventional intraoral periapical, and digital radiologic techniques.

Materials and methods: A total of 108 implants were placed (59 in the maxilla and 49 in the mandible) in 42 patients (16 men and 26 women) with a mean age of 44.2 years (range 14 to 68 years). Orthopantomographic, conventional periapical, and digital radiographs were obtained at loading and again 1 year later. Bone loss was calculated from the difference between the initial and final measurements.

Results: Mean loss in alveolar bone height was determined to be 1.36 mm by extraoral panoramic radiography, 0.76 mm by intraoral periapical radiography, and 0.95 mm by digital radiography. The implants located in the maxilla and those placed in patients who smoked 11 to 20 cigarettes per day were associated with significantly greater bone loss.

Discussion: The results in relation to peri-implant bone loss in the first year after loading were similar to those published by other authors.

Conclusion: Conventional periapical films and digital radiographs were more accurate than orthopantomography in the assessment of peri-implant bone loss. Smoking and implant location in the maxilla were associated with increased peri-implant marginal bone resorption.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alveolar Bone Loss / diagnostic imaging*
  • Alveolar Bone Loss / etiology*
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Dental Implantation, Endosseous / adverse effects*
  • Dental Implants / adverse effects*
  • Dental Restoration Failure
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Maxilla / pathology
  • Middle Aged
  • Radiography, Dental / methods
  • Smoking / adverse effects*


  • Dental Implants