Osteoporosis after solid organ transplantation

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Apr;90(4):2456-65. doi: 10.1210/jc.2004-1978. Epub 2004 Dec 28.


With the rapid increase in the number of organs transplanted worldwide and the improved survival of transplant recipients, osteoporosis has emerged as a frequent complication of the transplantation process. In the past decade, the wider recognition of transplantation-related osteoporosis has led to a decrease in the risk of fracture for the individual patient. Nonetheless, fracture rates remain unacceptably high in transplant recipients. This presentation reviews the epidemiology of transplantation-related osteoporosis, the factors contributing to the pathogenesis of this complication, and the evaluation, prevention, and treatment options available for kidney, liver, lung, and heart transplant recipients.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bone Density
  • Calcineurin Inhibitors
  • Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder / complications
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects
  • Lung Diseases / complications
  • Organ Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • Osteoporosis / etiology*
  • Osteoporosis / prevention & control
  • Osteoporosis / therapy
  • Parathyroid Hormone / blood
  • Vitamin D / metabolism


  • Calcineurin Inhibitors
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Vitamin D