STKR is a neurokinin receptor derived from the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans. Insect tachykinin-related peptides, also referred to as "insectatachykinins", produce dose-dependent calcium and cyclic AMP responses in cultured Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) cells that were stably transfected with the cloned STKR cDNA. Pronounced differences in pharmacology were observed between agonist-induced calcium and cyclic AMP responses. The results indicate that the pharmacological properties of STKR depend on its coupling to a unique second messenger system. Therefore, a model postulating the existence of multiple active receptor conformations is proposed. This article presents the first evidence that an insect peptide receptor with dual coupling properties to second messenger systems can display agonist-dependent functional differences.