Glycemic control in diabetes patients continues to evolve as new medications are introduced and clinical trial data become available. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines for 2004, for the first time, provide targets for both preprandial and postprandial glucose levels. The ADA, however, does not provide guidelines regarding specific medication therapy. This paper provides a detailed treatment algorithm that is easy to follow for nurse practitioners as well as primary care providers. Progress in our understanding of diabetes and new therapeutic agents will dictate modifications of treatment targets and guidelines, with the goal of making euglycemia achievable for all patients with diabetes.