Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is an oncoprotein that is expressed in many malignancies as well as normal tissues. At essentially every site of expression, PTHrP regulates cell growth and proliferation. We and other investigators have previously reported that PTHrP is widely expressed by prostate cancer. For this tumor, there are substantial in vitro and correlative data that PTHrP expression regulates the progression of the tumor, especially in bone, but little direct data. We studied the effects of PTHrP expression on prostate cancer behavior directly in a mouse model of human prostate cancer cells that were transfected to express different forms of the polypeptide and then injected intraskeletally. Skeletal progression of the prostate cancer cells was evaluated radiologically and by measurement of serum tumor markers. PTHrP transfection converted a non-invasive cell line into one that progressed in the skeleton: Injection of the PTHrP transfected cells resulted in greater tumor progression in bone when compared to non-transfected cells, and this effect was also influenced by non-amino terminal peptides of PTHrP. Serum measurements of PTHrP, IL-6, IL-8, and calcium reflected tumor burden. Our experiments provide direct in vivo evidence that PTHrP expression results in the skeletal progression of prostate cancer cells.