Anti-inflammatory effects of jojoba liquid wax in experimental models

Pharmacol Res. 2005 Feb;51(2):95-105. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2004.04.011.


Jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link 1822) Schneider 1907] is an arid perennial shrub grown in several American and African countries. Jojoba seeds, which are rich in liquid wax, were used in folk medicine for diverse ailments. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of jojoba liquid wax (JLW) was evaluated in a number of experimental models. Results showed that JLW caused reduction of carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In a test for anti-inflammatory potential utilizing the chick's embryo chroioallantoic membrane (CAM), JLW also caused significant lowering of granulation tissue formation. Topical application of JLW reduced ear oedema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, JLW also reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In addition, JLW ameliorated histopathological changes affected by croton oil application. In the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in air pouch in rats, JLW reduced nitric oxide (NO) level and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of JLW in combating inflammation in several experimental models. Further investigations are needed to identify the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory property of JLW.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use*
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Edema / drug therapy*
  • Edema / metabolism
  • Edema / pathology
  • Male
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Seeds
  • Waxes / isolation & purification
  • Waxes / therapeutic use*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Plant Extracts
  • Waxes
  • jojoba wax