Objective: Adiponectin is a 29-kd adipocyte-secreted protein that has been linked to insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate adiponectin levels in the insulin-resistant state of diabetes in gestation.
Methods: Term, gravid subjects with diabetes (n = 31; age, 30.0 +/- 0.9 years; weight, 98.8 +/- 4.6 kg) and healthy, term, gravid subjects (n = 27; age, 26.1 +/- 1.1 years; weight, 91.2 +/- 3.78 kg) were examined. The diabetes group consisted of 11 class A1, 11 class A2, and nine class B subjects. Plasma insulin, glucose, adiponectin, and leptin were measured on samples obtained immediately before Cesarean or vaginal delivery. Data were presented as means +/- SE, and significance is set at P < or = .05.
Results: We observed decreased adiponectin levels in class A2 (4.93 +/- 0.58 microg/mL; P = .013) and class B diabetics (3.33 +/- 0.56 microg/mL; P = .001) as compared to controls (8.17 +/- 0.82 microg/mL), while a nonsignificant decrease was also observed in class A1 (6.58 +/- 1.13 microg/mL; P = .213). When grouping all gravid subjects, we observed that non-Caucasian subjects (n = 42) (5.51 +/- 0.51 microg/mL; P = .003) had lower adiponectin levels than Caucasian subjects (n = 16) (8.88 +/- 1.11 microg/mL). Within the non-Caucasian group, we found significantly lower adiponectin levels in diabetic gravid subjects (class A2: 4.24 +/- 0.75 microg/mL; P = .044; and class B: 3.33 +/- 0.56 microg/mL; P = .005) compared with nondiabetic gravid subjects (7.05 +/- 0.80 microg/mL).
Conclusion: Class A2 and B gestational diabetes are associated with suppressed levels of adiponectin, similar to that found in other insulin-resistant states (type II diabetes and obesity).