Antioxidative properties of lycopene and other carotenoids from tomatoes: synergistic effects

Biofactors. 2004;21(1-4):203-10. doi: 10.1002/biof.552210141.


Lycopene is the major carotenoid in tomatoes. Tomatoes contain a matrix of many bioactive components, including vitamin C, vitamin E, other carotenoids (a-, beta-, gamma- carotene, lutein), and flavonoids. Their synergistic interactions, when used in combination, may be responsible for the observed beneficial effects of tomato-based products. This study investigated the synergistic antioxidant activity of lycopene in combination with beta-carotene, vitamin E, and lutein. A liposome system was used to test the synergistic antioxidant activity. The carotenoid mixtures were more efficient in protecting liposome from oxidation than the individual carotenoid. Mixtures of lycopene and vitamin E appear to have the greatest synergistic antioxidant activity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Carotenoids / pharmacology*
  • Drug Synergism
  • Flavonoids / pharmacology*
  • Liposomes
  • Lutein / pharmacology
  • Lycopene
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Phytotherapy
  • Solanum lycopersicum*
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances / analysis
  • Vitamin E / pharmacology


  • Antioxidants
  • Flavonoids
  • Liposomes
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
  • Vitamin E
  • Carotenoids
  • Lycopene
  • Lutein