The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) gene of Podospora anserina has been isolated from a genomic library by heterologous hybridization with the corresponding gene of Curvularia lunata. The coding region consists of 1014 nucleotides and is interrupted by a single intron. The amino-acid sequence encoded by the gpd gene shows a high degree of sequence identity with the corresponding gene products of various fungi. Multiple alignments of all fungal GPD sequences so far available resulted in the construction of a phylogenetic tree. The evolutionary relationships of the various fungi belonging to different taxa will be discussed on the basis of these data. Sequence analysis of 1.9 kbp of the 5' non-coding region revealed the presence of typical fungal promoter elements. Utilizing different parts of the 5' regulatory sequence of the Podospora gpd gene, expression vectors containing a dominant selectable marker gene (hygromycin B phosphotransferase) have been constructed for the transformation of P. anserina protoplasts. The use of these homologous gpd regulatory sequences resulted in a significant increase in transformation efficiencies compared to those obtained with vectors in which the selectable marker gene is under the control of the corresponding heterologous promoter of Aspergillus nidulans.