Number size distribution, mass concentration, and particle composition of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 in bag filling areas of carbon black production

J Occup Environ Hyg. 2004 Oct;1(10):660-71. doi: 10.1080/15459620490502242.


Number size characteristics and PM10 mass concentrations of particles emitted during the packaging of various kinds of carbon blacks were measured continuously in the bag filling areas of three carbon black plants and concurrently at ambient comparison sites. PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 dust fractions were also determined in the bag filling areas. The filter samples were then analyzed for elemental and organic carbon. Comparisons of the measured number size distributions and mass concentrations during bag filling activities with those measured parallel at the ambient site and with those determined during nonworking periods in the work area enabled the characterization of emitted particles. PM10 mass concentrations were consistently elevated (up to a factor of 20 compared to ambient concentrations) during working periods in the bag filling area. Detailed analysis revealed that the carbon black particles released by bag filling activities had a size distribution starting at approximately 400 nm aerodynamic diameter (dae) with modes around 1 microm dae and > 8 microm dae. Ultrafine particles (< 100 nm dae), detected in the bag filling areas, were most likely attributed to noncarbon black sources such as forklift and gas heater emissions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollution, Indoor / analysis*
  • Carbon / chemistry*
  • Dust
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Industry
  • Occupational Exposure*
  • Particle Size


  • Dust
  • Carbon