Anthocyanins are responsible for a variety of bright colors including red, blue, and purple in fruits, vegetables, and flowers and are consumed as dietary polyphenols. Anthocyanin-containing fruits are implicated in a decrease in coronary heart disease and are used in antidiabetic preparations. In the present study, we have determined the ability of anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glucoside (1), delphinidin-3-glucoside (2), cyanidin-3-galactoside (3), and pelargonidin-3-galactoside (4), and anthocyanidins, cyanidin (5), delphinidin (6), pelargonidin (7), malvidin (8), and petunidin (9), to stimulate insulin secretion from rodent pancreatic beta-cells (INS-1 832/13) in vitro. The compounds were tested in the presence of 4 and 10 mM glucose concentrations. Our results indicated that 1 and 2 were the most effective insulin secretagogues among the anthocyanins and anthocyanidins tested at 4 and 10 mM glucose concentrations. Pelargonidin-3-galactoside is one of the major anthocyanins, and its aglycone, pelargonidin, caused a 1.4-fold increase in insulin secretion at 4 mM glucose concentration. The rest of the anthocyanins and anthocyanidins tested in our assay had only marginal effects on insulin at 4 and 10 mM glucose concentrations.