The theory of "truth": how counterindustry campaigns affect smoking behavior among teens

Health Psychol. 2005 Jan;24(1):22-31. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.24.1.22.


This study used structural equation modeling to test a theory-based model of the pathways by which exposure to the "truth" counterindustry media campaign influenced beliefs, attitudes, and smoking behavior in national random-digit-dial telephone surveys of 16,000 12- to 17-year-olds before, 8 months after, and 15 months after campaign launch. Consistent with concepts from the theory of reasoned action, youth in markets with higher levels of campaign exposure had more negative beliefs about tobacco industry practices and more negative attitudes toward the tobacco industry. Models also provided support for a social inoculation effect, because negative industry attitudes were associated with lower receptivity to protobacco advertising and with less progression along a continuum of smoking intentions and behavior.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Behavior / psychology*
  • Advertising / methods*
  • Awareness
  • Child
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Health Promotion / methods*
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Male
  • Marketing / organization & administration
  • Marketing / standards
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Program Evaluation
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Smoking Cessation
  • Smoking Prevention*
  • Tobacco Industry* / ethics
  • Trust / psychology*