The purpose of this study, making use of systematic records on computer over a period of 12 years, was to compare the prevalence and the demographic characteristics of patients with peptic stricture with those having a reflux esophagitis. As compared with 3880 cases of erosive and/or ulcerative esophagitis, the percentage of peptic stricture patients was 1.21%. The latter were on average nine years older and more frequently had a hiatus hernia. Ten patients with peptic stricture had had severe esophagitis previously recorded in our department. Thirty-four peptic stricture patients (72.3%) had at least one condition reported as possibly provocative of stricture. This study stresses the point that the incidence of peptic esophageal stricture is probably far lower than had been reported previously. Consequently, management of low-grade reflux esophagitis should be aimed primarily at relieving symptoms rather than healing esophageal lesions to prevent stricture.