In green tissues of plants under illumination, photosynthesis is the primary source of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which is utilized in reductive reactions such as carbon fixation and nitrogen assimilation. In non-photosynthetic tissues or under non-photosynthetic conditions, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway contributes to basic metabolism as one of the major sources of NADPH. The first and committed reaction is catalyzed by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). We characterized the six members of the G6PDH gene family in Arabidopsis. Transit peptide analysis predicted two cytosolic and four plastidic isoforms. Five of the six genes encode active G6PDHs. The recombinant isoforms showed differences in substrate requirements and sensitivities to feedback inhibition. Plastidic isoforms were redox sensitive. One cytosolic isoform was insensitive to redox changes, while the other was inactivated by oxidation. The respective genes had distinct expression patterns that did not correlate with the activity of the proteins, implying a regulatory mechanism beyond the control of mRNA abundance. Two cytosolic and one plastidic isoform were detected in vivo using zymograms, and the respective genes were identified using T-DNA insertion lines. The activity of a plastidic isoform was detected in all tissues including photosynthetic tissues despite its sensitivity to reduction observed in vitro. Genomic data, gene expression, and in vivo enzyme activity data were integrated with in vitro biochemical data to propose in vivo roles for individual G6PDH isoforms in Arabidopsis.