Relation between subjective fogginess and neuropsychological testing following concussion

J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2004 Oct;10(6):904-6. doi: 10.1017/s1355617704106139.


The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between the subjective report of feeling foggy at one-week post concussion and acute neuropsychological outcome. The outcome variables were derived from a computerized neuropsychological screening battery, Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). Participants were 110 high school students who sustained a sports-related concussion and were evaluated 5-10 days post injury (M = 6.8 days). Athletes were divided into two groups on the basis of self-reported fogginess. The first group reported no fogginess (n = 91), whereas the second group reported experiencing some degree of fogginess (n = 19) on a 6-point scale. The athletes with persistent fogginess experienced a large number of other post-concussion symptoms, compared to the athletes with no reported fogginess. In addition, the athletes with persistent fogginess had significantly slower reaction times, reduced memory performance, and slower processing speed. Thus, athletes with any degree of self-reported fogginess at one-week post injury are likely to have adverse effects from their concussions in multiple domains.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Athletic Injuries / psychology*
  • Brain Concussion / psychology*
  • Confusion / etiology*
  • Confusion / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Memory
  • Neuropsychological Tests*
  • Psychomotor Performance / physiology
  • Reaction Time / physiology
  • Treatment Outcome