The authors report on the method, course and results of treatment of patients with meningococcal septicaemia. The two most common forms of meningococcal disease are meningococcal septicaemia (MS) and meningitis. Severe MS is a fulminant form of sepsis characterized by a rapidly spreading purpuric rash, haemodynamic instability and rapid progression to shock or death. The diganosis of MS was confirmed by isolation of NM in blood or cerebrospinal fluid, and/or positive solubile bacterial antigenes. However, in some children whose symptoms were consistent in MS (temperature and extensive purpura), no bacterial or soluble antigens were detected, particularly when they had been previours antibiotic treatment. Several scoring systems have been used to predict morbidity and mortility from MS. We selected the prognostic scor developed by Malley et al. Absolute neutrophil count less than 3 x 10(3)/mm3, platelet count less than 150 x 10(3)/mm3 and poor perfusion are indicators of poor prognosis. The presence of at least two of these indicators was associated with an 82% of risk of death. We reviewed the hospital records of 36 paediatric patients with acute meningococcal infection during a 5-year period. The age of our patients ranged from 2 months to 15 years (mean 4.4 yrs). Twenty seven (70%) of 36 children had MS and 11 (40.7%) had both MS and meningitis. Based on Malley scor, 13 (48.1%) patients had at least two predictors with > 82% of risk of lethal outcome. Four children (30.7%) died. Severe MS was diagnosed in 16 (59.2%) patients, who required mechanical ventilation (16; 59.2%), or continuous inotropic support and invasive measures of circulatory parametars (15; 55.5%). Shock treatment consisted of large volumes of crystalloid or colloid infusions thad ranged from 140 to 500 ml/kg/24 hrs (mean 215 ml/kg) Our results indicate that early controlled mechanical ventilations increase safety of large volume infusion with continuous invasive monitoring and inotropic stimulation, and may contribute to a greater survival of children with severe MS.