Cardiac troponin-I (cTnI) is a highly sensitive and specific marker of myocardial injury and can be detected in plasma by immunoassay techniques. The purpose of this study was to establish a reference range for plasma cTnI in a population of healthy dogs using a human immunoassay system and to determine whether plasma cTnI concentrations were high in dogs with acquired or congenital heart disease, specifically cardiomyopathy (CM), degenerative mitral valve disease (MVD), and subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS). In total, 269 dogs were examined by physical examination, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and plasma cTnI assay. In 176 healthy dogs, median cTnI was 0.03 ng/mL (upper 95th percentile = 0.11 ng/mL). Compared with the healthy population, median plasma cTnI was increased in dogs with CM (0.14 ng/mL; range, 0.03-1.88 ng/mL; P < .001; n = 26), in dogs with MVD (0.11 ng/mL; range, 0.01-9.53 ng/mL; P < .001; n = 37), and in dogs with SAS (0.08 ng/mL; range, 0.01-0.94 ng/mL; P < .001; n = 30). In dogs with CM and MVD, plasma cTnI was correlated with left ventricular and left atrial size. In dogs with SAS, cTnI demonstrated a modest correlation with ventricular wall thickness. In dogs with CM, the median survival time of those with cTnI >0.20 ng/mL was significantly shorter than median survival time of those with cTnI <0.20 ng/mL (112 days versus 357 days; P = .006). Plasma cTnI is high in dogs with cardiac disease, correlates with heart size and survival, and can be used as a blood-based biomarker of cardiac disease.