Developmental and vascular risk factors for Alzheimer's disease

Neurobiol Aging. 2005 Mar;26(3):325-34. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2004.04.010.

Abstract

To investigate developmental and vascular risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined 90 incident cases of probable AD in a cohort of 1859 individuals followed prospectively for six years. The presence of the APOE-epsilon4 allele was the strongest risk factor, and with increasing survival age, the effect of epsilon4 diminished. Among epsilon4 positives, developmental risk factors such as smaller head circumference (< or =54.4 cm) and having more than four children in the household at age 2-3 were independently associated with incident AD (hazard ratio (HR)=2.6 (95% CI 1.04-6.3) and 3.3 (1.2-9.2), respectively). Among epsilon4 negatives, vascular risk factors were related to AD risk (self-reported diagnoses of transient ischemic attack and diabetes (HR=5.1, 95% CI 1.7-15.5; HR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-8.1)). These findings indicate that clinical AD is a result of early life as well as later life risk factors, and that genetic predisposition to the disease may modify the constellation of predictors.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alzheimer Disease / ethnology*
  • Alzheimer Disease / genetics*
  • Alzheimer Disease / pathology
  • Apolipoprotein E4
  • Apolipoproteins E / genetics*
  • Asian Americans / genetics*
  • Blood Pressure
  • Brain / pathology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / ethnology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Comorbidity
  • Diabetes Mellitus / ethnology
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency / genetics
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / ethnology
  • Japan / ethnology
  • Male
  • Organ Size
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Siblings
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Washington / epidemiology

Substances

  • Apolipoprotein E4
  • Apolipoproteins E