Diverse protocadherin-alpha genes (Pcdha, also called cadherin-related neuronal receptor or CNR) are expressed in the vertebrate brain. Their genomic organization involves multiple variable exons and a set of constant exons, similar to the immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) genes. This diversity can be used to distinguish neurons. Using polymorphisms that distinguish the C57BL/6 and MSM mouse strains, we analyzed the allelic expression of the Pcdha gene cluster in individual neurons. Single-cell analysis of Purkinje cells using multiple RT-PCR reactions showed the monoallelic and combinatorial expression of each variable exon in the Pcdha genes. This report is the first description to our knowledge of the allelic expression of a diversified receptor family in the central nervous system. The allelic and combinatorial expression of distinct variable exons of the Pcdha genes is a potential mechanism for specifying neuron identity in the brain.