Objective: To clarify the consequences of the valine/leucine polymorphism at position 247 of the beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI) gene in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), by investigating the correlation between genotypes and the presence of anti-beta(2)GPI antibody. The reactivity of anti-beta(2)GPI antibodies was characterized using recombinant Val(247) and Leu(247) beta(2)GPI.
Methods: Sixty-five Japanese patients with APS and/or systemic lupus erythematosus who were positive for antiphospholipid antibodies and 61 controls were analyzed for the presence of the Val/Leu(247) polymorphism of beta(2)GPI. Polymorphism assignment was determined by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction enzyme digestion. Recombinant Val(247) and Leu(247) beta(2)GPI were established to compare the reactivity of anti-beta(2)GPI antibodies to beta(2)GPI between these variants. The variants were prepared on polyoxygenated plates or cardiolipin-coated plates, and the reactivity of a series of anti-beta(2)GPI antibodies (immunized anti-human beta(2)GPI monoclonal antibodies [Cof-19-21] and autoimmune anti-beta(2)GPI monoclonal antibodies [EY1C8, EY2C9, and TM1G2]) and IgGs purified from patient sera was investigated.
Results: A positive correlation between the Val(247) allele and the presence of anti-beta(2)GPI antibodies was observed in the patient group. Human monoclonal/polyclonal anti-beta(2)GPI autoantibodies showed higher binding to recombinant Val(247) beta(2)GPI than to Leu(247) beta(2)GPI, although no difference in the reactivity of the immunized anti-beta(2)GPI between these variants was observed. Conformational optimization showed that the replacement of Leu(247) by Val(247) led to a significant alteration in the tertiary structure of domain V and/or the domain IV-V interaction.
Conclusion: The Val(247) beta(2)GPI allele was associated with both a high frequency of anti-beta(2)GPI antibodies and stronger reactivity with anti-beta(2)GPI antibodies compared with the Leu(247) beta(2)GPI allele, suggesting that the Val(247) beta(2)GPI allele may be one of the genetic risk factors for development of APS.