MicroRNAs (miRNAs) repress target genes at the post-transcriptional level and play important roles in development and cell lineage decision. However, in vertebrates, both the targets of miRNAs and their expression profile during development are poorly understood. Here, we report the detailed expression profiles of miRNAs from oocyte stage to tadpole stage in Xenopus laevis. As development proceeds, a variety of miRNAs start to be expressed. Most miRNAs emerged at a specific stage and were continuously expressed until the tadpole stage. In addition, we identified a novel miRNA that was expressed only at specific stages of development and that is likely to have roles in midblastula transition.