Objectives: We sought to determine the prognostic value of left ventricular (LV) mitral annular velocities measured by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in hypertensive patients with echocardiographic evidence of LV hypertrophy.
Background: Echo LV hypertrophy and LV geometry provide additional predictive value of all-cause mortality beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Limited data exist regarding the predictive value of TDI velocities for cardiovascular risk stratification in treated hypertensive patients.
Methods: Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiograms were obtained in 252 consecutive subjects, including 174 subjects with systemic hypertension and 78 age-matched normal subjects. The end point was cardiac death in subsequent median follow-up of 19 months.
Results: Nineteen patients (7.54%) died of cardiac causes. The TDI mitral annulus systolic velocity and the early diastolic mitral annular velocity (Em) were significantly lower in the non-survivors (all P < 0.001). The pseudonormal (PN) or restrictive filling pattern (RFP) was associated with cardiac mortality. The other parameters associated with cardiac mortality were LV ejection fraction, LV mass index, inter-ventricular septal wall thickness in diastole and the ratio of early mitral inflow to early myocardial velocity. In multivariate analysis, Em, inter-ventricular septal wall thickness in diastole and either PN or RFP were the strongest predictors. The addition of Em < 3.5 cm/s significantly improved the outcome of a model that contained clinical risk factors, inter-ventricular septal wall thickness in diastole > 1.4 cm and either PN or RFP (P = 0.043).
Conclusions: Early diastolic mitral annulus velocity measured by TDI provides prognostic information, incremental to clinical data and standard echocardiographic variables, for risk stratification of hypertensive patients under treatment.