Estimating direct and indirect costs of premenstrual syndrome

J Occup Environ Med. 2005 Jan;47(1):26-33. doi: 10.1097/01.jom.0000150209.44312.d1.


Objective: To quantify the economic impact of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) on the employer.

Methods: Data were collected from 374 women aged 18-45 with regular menses. Direct costs were quantified using administrative claims of these patients and the Medicare Fee Schedule. Indirect costs were quantified by both self-reported days of work missed and lost productivity at work. Regression analyses were used to develop a model to project PMS-related direct and indirect costs.

Results: A total of 29.6% (n = 111) of the participants were diagnosed with PMS. A PMS diagnosis was associated with an average annual increase of $59 in direct costs (P < 0.026) and $4333 in indirect costs per patient (P < 0.0001) compared with patients without PMS.

Conclusions: A PMS diagnosis correlated with a modest increase in direct medical costs and a large increase in indirect costs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Absenteeism*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Ambulatory Care / economics
  • California
  • Capitation Fee / statistics & numerical data
  • Fee Schedules / economics
  • Fee Schedules / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insurance Claim Reporting / economics
  • Medicare / economics
  • Middle Aged
  • Occupational Diseases / economics*
  • Premenstrual Syndrome / economics*