Purpose: This is part 1 of a 2-part review. Research into the molecular mechanisms underlying the various aspects of prostate cancer (PCa) requires the use of in vivo and in vitro model systems. In the last few years many new cell lines have been established by investigators from primary tissue sources and clonal derivatives of previously established lines. Therefore, the purpose of this 2-part review is to catalogue the current human cell lines developed for PCa research, as reported in the literature. Part 1 includes tissue culture cell lines derived from metastases, primary tumors and nonadenocarcinomas that were established without the use of transgenes. It also includes a section describing lines that have been contaminated with other lines, shown not to be of prostatic origin or whose identity is being challenged.
Materials and methods: Prostate cell lines included in this review were identified by extensive searching of the literature using several strategies, including PubMed searches and book chapter reviews.
Results: In total we describe the derivation, phenotype, genotype and characterization of molecular markers expressed by approximately 200 lines and sublines used in PCa research, including those derived from primary tumors, metastases and normal prostate tissue. We paid particular attention to the expression of prostate specific antigen, androgen receptor, cytokeratins and other molecular markers used to indicate the status of PCa and the prostatic lineage of a given line. In an attempt to provide PCa researchers with a resource of information regarding new and established cell lines we have also created an online database of these PCa cell lines freely accessible via the World Wide Web at http://www.CaPCellLines.com. The web based interface allows researchers to peruse and print information regarding cell lines, add new cell lines and update or add new information regarding established cell lines.
Conclusions: This compendium of cell lines currently used in PCa research combined with access to our on-line database provides researchers with a continually updated and valuable resource for investigating the molecular mechanisms of PCa.