Distinct activities of CHD1 and ACF in ATP-dependent chromatin assembly

Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005 Feb;12(2):160-6. doi: 10.1038/nsmb884. Epub 2005 Jan 9.


CHD1 is a chromodomain-containing protein in the SNF2-like family of ATPases. Here we show that CHD1 exists predominantly as a monomer and functions as an ATP-utilizing chromatin assembly factor. This reaction involves purified CHD1, NAP1 chaperone, core histones and relaxed DNA. CHD1 catalyzes the ATP-dependent transfer of histones from the NAP1 chaperone to the DNA by a processive mechanism that yields regularly spaced nucleosomes. The comparative analysis of CHD1 and ACF revealed that CHD1 assembles chromatin with a shorter nucleosome repeat length than ACF. In addition, ACF, but not CHD1, can assemble chromatin containing histone H1, which is involved in the formation of higher-order chromatin structure and transcriptional repression. These results suggest a role for CHD1 in the assembly of active chromatin and a function of ACF in the assembly of repressive chromatin.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Catalysis
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Chromatin / chemistry*
  • Chromatin / metabolism*
  • DNA / chemistry
  • DNA / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / chemistry
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Drosophila Proteins / chemistry
  • Drosophila Proteins / metabolism*
  • Drosophila melanogaster / genetics
  • Drosophila melanogaster / metabolism
  • Histones / metabolism
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Nucleosome Assembly Protein 1
  • Nucleosomes / chemistry
  • Nucleosomes / metabolism
  • Proteins / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / chemistry
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*


  • CHD1 protein, Drosophila
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Chromatin
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Histones
  • Nap1 protein, Drosophila
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Nucleosome Assembly Protein 1
  • Nucleosomes
  • Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • DNA