Genome size has been estimated by flow cytometry in 47 populations of 40 species of the tribe Anthemideae (Asteraceae), mainly from Artemisia and other genera of the subtribe Artemisiinae and related taxa. A range of 2C values from 3.54 to 21.22 pg was found. DNA amount per basic chromosome set ranged from 1.77 to 7.70 pg. First genome size estimates are provided for one subtribe, 10 genera, 32 species, and two subspecies. Nuclear DNA amount correlated well with some karyological, physiological and environmental characters, and has been demonstrated as a useful tool in the interpretation of evolutionary relationships within Artemisia and its close relatives.