Clinal patterns over broad geographic regions provide a way of identifying characteristics of species under selection and are increasingly being used in quantitative trait locus mapping of adaptive genetic variation in Drosophila. However, interpretations of clinal patterns can be complicated by inversions that also vary clinally and reduce recombination in some parts of the genome. Drosophila serrata (Malloch) is an Australian endemic species being used to investigate the genetic basis of geographic variation in climatic adaptation and mate recognition. Here we describe inversions in D. serrata populations from the east coast of Australia, covering tropical and temperate regions. Seven autosomal paracentric inversions and 1 apparently complex X chromosome arrangement were identified from these populations. All inverted arrangements were relatively more common in tropical populations; 2 common inversions showed clinal patterns over part of the range of D. serrata. Inversion polymorphism was relatively higher in tropical populations and almost absent in populations near the cooler southern border, in agreement with findings on other Drosophila species. While these patterns will complicate mapping of adaptive variation in D. serrata, they suggest that this species will be useful in investigatingthe dynamics of inversion-trait associations in natural populations.