This is an interval analysis of the 2-year prospective multicenter Childrens Cancer Study Group study of 1,141 chronic venous access devices in 1,019 children with cancer. Device type was external catheter (EC) 72%, totally implantable (TID) 28%, and did not differ for diagnosis or age except more double-lumen devices in bone marrow transplant protocols (77%) and more TIDs in children less than 1 year old (17.7%). Insertion characteristics evaluated in 1,078 (95%) were: operating room placement 99%; general anesthesia 98%; cutdown 67%; percutaneous 33%; atrial position 50%, caval position 50%; and perioperative antibiotics 48%. Vein entry was the external jugular 33%, internal jugular 22%, subclavian 35%, cephalic 7%, and saphenous 3%. Insertion was difficult or very difficult in only 10% and operative complications occurred in only 0.7%. Degree of difficulty bore no relationship to device type or patient age. The reasons for removal in 736 devices (67%) were due to complications in 39%, of which infections were the most frequent. There was some variance between centers ranging from 8.5% to 31% for infection; 2.8% to 24% for dislodgment; and 0% to 13% for occlusion. ECs had a higher risk of dislodgment; elective removals were more frequent in TIDs; there was no difference in infection as a cause for removal between ECs and TIDs. Dislodgment was associated with the shortest distance of the cuff to the skin exit (mean, 4 cm): less than or equal to 2 cm, 49%; greater than 2 cm, 28% (P = .009) and occurred most frequently in the younger patient (18.9%, 0 to 1 years; 0.5%, greater than 8 years.