A six-month study of two self-applied tooth whitening products containing carbamide peroxide

Oper Dent. Nov-Dec 2004;29(6):623-6.


Bleaching offers a non-interventive way of improving the appearance of sound, yet discolored anterior teeth. Until recently, the whitening agent was applied using a tray, but now other methods of delivering whitening agents, such as those using brush applicators, are available. This study investigated the tooth whitening efficacy of two novel, self-applied tooth whitening systems containing either 18% (Group 1) or 16.4% (Group 2) carbamide peroxide. Ninety-five subjects, ranging in age from 18 to 70 with anterior teeth A3 or darker, were recruited and randomly allocated to a group. The subjects were instructed to apply the formulation to all maxillary anterior teeth after brushing in the morning and evening. At baseline, two weeks and six months the upper six anterior teeth of the subjects were measured using the Vita shade guide tab system. In addition, the gingival health of the labial surfaces of the upper six anterior teeth was assessed using the Loee and Silness Gingival index (Loee & Silness, 1963) at baseline and at two weeks. The mean (SD) reduction in shade guide scores was 4.1 (2.4) shade guide tabs for subjects in Group 1, compared to 3.7 (2.6) shades for those in Group 2. This difference was not statistically significant (p=0.5). During the course of study, the gingivitis scores reduced from a mean (SD) of 0.91 (0.62) at baseline to 0.44 (0.55) at final examination (48% reduction). At the six-month recall, the mean (SD) reduction in shade guide scores was 2.3 (2.7) shade guide tabs for subjects in Group 1, compared to 2.5 (2.5) shades for those in Group 2. The different concentrations tested were found to be equally effective in improving the whiteness of upper anterior teeth by approximately four shades over a two-week period and the majority of the whitening benefit (c.60%) was sustained at six-month recall.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Carbamide Peroxide
  • Color
  • Cuspid / drug effects
  • Cuspid / pathology
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Drug Combinations
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gingivitis / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Incisor / drug effects
  • Incisor / pathology
  • Male
  • Materials Testing
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxidants / administration & dosage
  • Oxidants / therapeutic use*
  • Periodontal Index
  • Peroxides / administration & dosage
  • Peroxides / therapeutic use*
  • Self Administration
  • Time Factors
  • Tooth Bleaching / methods*
  • Tooth Discoloration / drug therapy
  • Tooth Discoloration / pathology
  • Toothbrushing
  • Urea / administration & dosage
  • Urea / analogs & derivatives*
  • Urea / therapeutic use*


  • Drug Combinations
  • Oxidants
  • Peroxides
  • Carbamide Peroxide
  • Urea