Effects of artificial saliva and APF gel on the surface roughness of newer glass ionomer cements

Oper Dent. Nov-Dec 2004;29(6):661-8.


Objectives: To investigate the surface roughness changes of newer esthetic dental restorative materials with aging and acid erosion in a simulated oral environment.

Methods: The materials included two viscous conventional glass ionomer cements originally marketed for the ART approach, one resin-modified glass ionomer cement and two resin composites. Ten specimens for each material were prepared according to the manufacturers' instructions, then each specimen was immersed in 2 ml of buffered artificial saliva at 37 degrees C for three weeks. For each material, five specimens (Group B) were then coated with 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel for four minutes, rinsed and immersed again in artificial saliva for another three weeks. Gel was not applied to the Group A specimens. For each material, the surface roughness of an additional three fresh specimens and those from Groups A and B were evaluated using a profilometer and SEM.

Results: The resin composites showed the least effects of acidic corrosion on their surface texture. The viscous glass ionomer cements showed the greatest changes, with significantly increased surface roughness p<0.001).

Conclusions: The immersion of two newer viscous GICs in a buffered artificial saliva and the single application of APF gel resulted in significantly rougher surfaces over a relatively short six-week period.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride / chemistry*
  • Cariostatic Agents / chemistry*
  • Composite Resins / chemistry
  • Corrosion
  • Glass Ionomer Cements / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Materials Testing
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Resin Cements / chemistry
  • Saliva, Artificial / chemistry*
  • Surface Properties
  • Time Factors
  • Viscosity


  • Cariostatic Agents
  • Composite Resins
  • Filtek Z250
  • Fuji IX GP Fast
  • Glass Ionomer Cements
  • Resin Cements
  • Saliva, Artificial
  • Unifil Bond
  • Vitremer
  • ketac-molar
  • Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride