Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis with paravalvular abscess treated with daptomycin

Heart Lung. Jan-Feb 2005;34(1):69-71. doi: 10.1016/j.hrtlng.2004.07.009.

Abstract

Prosthetic valves have been used extensively for severe cardiac valvular dysfunction for the past 3 decades. Prosthetic cardiac valves may be infected with organisms causing bacteremia, particularly gram-positive cocci. Staphylococcus epidermidis (coagulase negative staphylococci) and Staphylococcus aureus , both methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, are the most frequent pathogens causing prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). Vancomycin has been the cornerstone of therapy for serious MRSA infections including bacteremia and endocarditis. Clinicians have noted that MRSA bacteremias treated with vancomycin often fail to clear even with prolonged therapy. Persistent or prolonged MRSA bacteremia unresponsive to vancomycin therapy has led to the treatment of these infections by other agents, that is, quinupristin, dalfopristin, linezolid, or daptomycin. These antibiotics have been found particularly useful in treating MRSA bacteremias unresponsive to vancomycin therapy. We report a case of a patient who presented with MRSA PVE complicated by perivalvular aortic abscess with persistent MRSA bacteremia unresponsive to vancomycin therapy. The patient's MRSA bacteremia was cleared with daptomycin therapy (6 mg/kg/d). Because the patient refused surgery, daptomycin therapy was continued in hopes of curing the endocarditis and sterilizing the perivalvular aortic abscess. Transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a decrease in abscess in the aortic perivalvular abscess after 1 week of daptomycin therapy. The patient made an uneventful recovery. The cure of PVE and perivalvular abscesses usually requires removal of the prosthetic device and abscess drainage. In this case, in which surgery was not an option, medical therapy of PVE and a decrease in size of the aortic perivalvular abscess were accomplished with daptomycin therapy. Daptomycin is an alternative to vancomycin therapy in patients with prolonged or persistent MRSA bacteremia secondary to endocarditis or abscess.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Abscess / drug therapy
  • Abscess / microbiology
  • Aged
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Aortic Valve / microbiology
  • Aortic Valve / surgery
  • Bacteremia / drug therapy
  • Bacteremia / microbiology
  • Daptomycin / therapeutic use*
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial / drug therapy*
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial / microbiology
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis / adverse effects*
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis / microbiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Methicillin Resistance
  • Prosthesis-Related Infections / drug therapy*
  • Staphylococcal Infections / drug therapy*
  • Staphylococcus aureus

Substances

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Daptomycin